During the Roman period, at the site of today’s Kuršumlija, there was a significant settlement called Ad Fines, which means “at the end” because it was on the border between the two provinces, Dalmatia and Upper Mezia. During the Byzantine period, it carried the name of Toplica and it was the seat of the diocese. In the Middle Ages, Kuršumlija was the first capital city in the reign of Stefan Nemanja. Between 1159 and 1168, he built his two first monuments, St. Nicolas and the Holy Mother of God, in Kuršumlija. During the Turkish period, there was a seat of the local government of the Turks and one of the largest monastery squares of lead and silver in this part of the Balkans . During the First Serbian Uprising, Karadjordje’s rebels were administering the area around Lukovo Spa for seven years and they attacked Kuršumlija four times while StanojeGlavaš liberated it in 1806 and administered it for a very short time. Kuršumlija was liberated from the Turks on the 19th of January in 1878.
In the World War I, Kursumlija became known because of Toplicas uprising in 1917 led by KostaPecanac. In this war, Kursumlija had many human and material losses.
In the World War II Germans occupied Kursumlija in the april of 12th, 1941. Bulgarians occupied town in march of 25th, 1942, until to liberation in august of 28th, 1944.